Period – E4

E4 Period

Superclass of:

Relations:

Scope note:

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space. It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the "ground" or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods. Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the "Neolithic Period", the "Ming Dynasty" or the "McCarthy Era", but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor. As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area. We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a space-time volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. There are two different conceptualisations of 'artistic style', defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type. Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:

  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism

In First Order Logic:

  • E4(x) ⊃ E2(x)
  • E4(x) ⊃ E92(x)

Incoming properties:

Scope Notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments
This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space. It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the "ground" or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods. Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the "Neolithic Period", the "Ming Dynasty" or the "McCarthy Era", but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor. As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area. We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a space-time volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. There are two different conceptualisations of 'artistic style', defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type. Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh. en 0

Examples

Show Example Language Namespace View details Comments
Jurassic European Bronze Age Italian Renaissance Thirty Years War Sturm und Drang Cubism en WIP 0

Additional notes

Show Notes Language Namespace View details Comments

Identifier : E4

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments
Phase * de 2018-06-22 0
Περίοδος * el 2018-06-22 0
Period * en 2018-06-22 0
Période * fr 2018-06-22 0
Período * pt 2018-06-22 0
Период * ru 2018-06-22 0
期间 * zh 2018-06-22 0

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CIDOC CRM version 6.2 2020-08-26

Parent classes

Class Class namespace Relation defined in Justification View details Comments
E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 0
E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2 0

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Class namespace
E1 CRM Entity 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E1 CRM Entity 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
C5 Region 2 HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
C5 Region 3 HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing

Child and descendant classes

Class Depth Class namespace
E5 Event 1 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E6 Destruction 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E8 Acquisition 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E9 Move 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E10 Transfer of Custody 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E11 Modification 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E12 Production 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E12 Production 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E14 Condition Assessment 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E15 Identifier Assignment 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E63 Beginning of Existence 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E64 End of Existence 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E65 Creation 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E66 Formation 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E67 Birth 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E68 Dissolution 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E69 Death 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E79 Part Addition 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E80 Part Removal 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E81 Transformation 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E83 Type Creation 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E85 Joining 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E86 Leaving 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E87 Curation Activity 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F8 Event 1 FRBRoo version 2.4
F27 Work Conception 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F28 Expression Creation 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F28 Expression Creation 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F29 Recording Event 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F29 Recording Event 6 FRBRoo version 2.4
F30 Publication Event 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F30 Publication Event 6 FRBRoo version 2.4
F31 Performance 3 FRBRoo version 2.4
F32 Carrier Production Event 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F32 Carrier Production Event 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F33 Reproduction Event 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F33 Reproduction Event 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment 5 FRBRoo version 2.4
F41 Representative Manifestation Assignment 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F42 Representative Expression Assignment 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit 3 FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity 4 FRBRoo version 2.4
C3 Relationship 3 Social and economic life (HistDMI) ongoing
C19 Persistent item life 3 HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
C15 Participation 3 Social and economic life (HistDMI) ongoing
C9 Union 4 Social and economic life (HistDMI) ongoing
C8 Occupation (Temporal entity) 3 Social and economic life (HistDMI) ongoing
C1 Print Publication Event 3 HistDMI – Intellectual and Literary Life (ongoing)
C4 Phase 2 HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
C23 Use 3 HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing

Related classes

Relation Class Justification Relation defined in View details Comments

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period P6 took place at (was place of) C13 Geographical Place HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period P7 took place at (witnessed) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period P8 took place on or within (witnessed) E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period P9 consists of (forms part of) E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P1 is identified by (identifies) E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P2 has type (is type of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P22 has quality (is quality of) C28 Quantifiable Quality HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P10 time-independent entity association E1 CRM Entity HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P39 has social characterization (is characterization of) C30 Social Characterization HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P4 has time-span (is time-span of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P115 finishes (is finished by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P116 starts (is started by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P117 occurs during (includes) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P120 occurs before (occurs after) E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P1 involves E1 CRM Entity HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P5 is component of (has component) E2 Temporal Entity HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P2 has identity defining component E1 CRM Entity HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P10 falls within (contains) E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P160 has temporal projection (is temporal projection of) E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P161 has spatial projection (is spatial projection of) E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period P9 consists of (forms part of) E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2
C25 Social Collective P36 has manifestation in (is manifestation of) E4 Period HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E1 CRM Entity P10 time-independent entity association E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P1 involves E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P114 is equal in time to E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P115 finishes (is finished by) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P116 starts (is started by) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P117 occurs during (includes) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P118 overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P119 meets in time with (is met in time by) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P120 occurs before (occurs after) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P2 has identity defining component E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P5 is component of (has component) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by (influenced) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by (motivated) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned (was assigned by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured (was measured by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified (was classified by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts (is depicted by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents (is documented in) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists (is listed in) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents (has representation) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on (supported type creation) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about (is subject of) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to (is referred to by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within (contains) E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of (had presence) E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F29 Recording Event R20 recorded (was recorded through) E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema (is thema of) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to (was assigned by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject (was typical subject of) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named (was named by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
C11 Appellation in a language (Temporal Entity) P11 is appellation for language of (has appellation for language) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) HistDMI – Generic Classes and Properties – ongoing

Profiles using this class

Label Start date End date Last updated
Silknow generic 2019-09-23
Silknow working profile 2020-02-21
Nouveau profile pour le projetXXXh - xxxxxx 2020-07-21

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