Period – E4

E4 Period

Superclass of:

Relations:

Scope note:

This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space. It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the "ground" or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods. Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the "Neolithic Period", the "Ming Dynasty" or the "McCarthy Era", but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor. As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area. We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a space-time volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. There are two different conceptualisations of 'artistic style', defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type. Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh.

Examples:

  • Jurassic
  • European Bronze Age
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Thirty Years War
  • Sturm und Drang
  • Cubism

In First Order Logic:

  • E4(x) ⊃ E2(x)
  • E4(x) ⊃ E92(x)
  • E4(x) ⊃ SP1(x)

Incoming properties:

Scope Notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments
This class comprises sets of coherent phenomena or cultural manifestations occurring in time and space. It is the social or physical coherence of these phenomena that identify an E4 Period and not the associated spatiotemporal extent. This extent is only the "ground" or space in an abstract physical sense that the actual process of growth, spread and retreat has covered. Consequently, different periods can overlap and coexist in time and space, such as when a nomadic culture exists in the same area and time as a sedentary culture. This also means that overlapping land use rights, common among first nations, amounts to overlapping periods. Often, this class is used to describe prehistoric or historic periods such as the "Neolithic Period", the "Ming Dynasty" or the "McCarthy Era", but also geopolitical units and activities of settlements are regarded as special cases of E4 Period. However, there are no assumptions about the scale of the associated phenomena. In particular all events are seen as synthetic processes consisting of coherent phenomena. Therefore E4 Period is a superclass of E5 Event. For example, a modern clinical E67 Birth can be seen as both an atomic E5 Event and as an E4 Period that consists of multiple activities performed by multiple instances of E39 Actor. As the actual extent of an E4 Period in spacetime we regard the trajectories of the participating physical things during their participation in an instance of E4 Period. This includes the open spaces via which these things have interacted and the spaces by which they had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way defined by the type of the respective period or event. Examples include the air in a meeting room transferring the voices of the participants. Since these phenomena are fuzzy, we assume the spatiotemporal extent to be contiguous, except for cases of phenomena spreading out over islands or other separated areas, including geopolitical units distributed over disconnected areas such as islands or colonies. Whether the trajectories necessary for participants to travel between these areas are regarded as part of the spatiotemporal extent or not has to be decided in each case based on a concrete analysis, taking use of the sea for other purposes than travel, such as fishing, into consideration. One may also argue that the activities to govern disconnected areas imply travelling through spaces connecting them and that these areas hence are spatially connected in a way, but it appears counterintuitive to consider for instance travel routes in international waters as extensions of geopolitical units. Consequently, an instance of E4 Period may occupy a number of disjoint spacetime volumes, however there must not be a discontinuity in the timespan covered by these spacetime volumes. This means that an instance of E4 Period must be contiguous in time. If it has ended in all areas, it has ended as a whole. However it may end in one area before another, such as in the Polynesian migration, and it continues as long as it is ongoing in at least one area. We model E4 Period as a subclass of E2 Temporal Entity and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E4 Period without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E4 Period is a phenomena while a space-time volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E4 Period is regarded to be unique to it due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E4 Period. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. There are two different conceptualisations of 'artistic style', defined either by physical features or by historical context. For example, “Impressionism” can be viewed as a period lasting from approximately 1870 to 1905 during which paintings with particular characteristics were produced by a group of artists that included (among others) Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley and Degas. Alternatively, it can be regarded as a style applicable to all paintings sharing the characteristics of the works produced by the Impressionist painters, regardless of historical context. The first interpretation is an instance of E4 Period, and the second defines morphological object types that fall under E55 Type. Another specific case of an E4 Period is the set of activities and phenomena associated with a settlement, such as the populated period of Nineveh. en 0

Examples

Show Example Language Namespace View details Comments
Jurassic European Bronze Age Italian Renaissance Thirty Years War Sturm und Drang Cubism en WIP 0

Additional notes

Show Notes Language Namespace View details Comments

Identifier : E4

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments
Phase * de 2018-06-22 0
Περίοδος * el 2018-06-22 0
Period * en 2018-06-22 0
Période * fr 2018-06-22 0
Período * pt 2018-06-22 0
Период * ru 2018-06-22 0
期间 * zh 2018-06-22 0

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CIDOC CRM version 6.2 2019-12-04

Parent classes

Class Justification Defined in namespace View association
E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo version 1.2

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Defined in namespace
E92 Spacetime Volume 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2

Childs and descendant classes

Class identifier Depth Defined in namespace
E5 Event 1 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
TyIn66 Événement 1 symogih.org ontology v.1.3 ongoing
F8 Event 1 FRBRoo version 2.4

Related classes

Relation Class Justification Defined in namespace View details
owl:equivalentClass edm_Event Event Europeana Data Model

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period P7 took place at E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period P8 took place on or within E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period P9 consists of E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period Q1 occupied SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo version 1.2

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P1 is identified by E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P2 has type E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P48 has preferred identifier E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) P137 exemplifies E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) L47 has comment E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) L4 has preferred label E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) L53 is not uniquely identified by E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP7 existence is deduced from geovC7 Data entity Geovistory ongoing
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP12 same as E1 CRM Entity Geovistory ongoing
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP13 derived from E1 CRM Entity Geovistory ongoing
E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) histP31 time-independent entity association E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P4 has time-span E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P115 finishes E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P116 starts E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P117 occurs during E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P118 overlaps in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P119 meets in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) P120 occurs before E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP1 involves E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP29 is component of E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) histP30 has identity defining component E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P10 falls within E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P160 has temporal projection E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P161 has spatial projection E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E4 Period (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q3 has temporal projection SP13 Phenomenal Time-Span CRMgeo version 1.2
E4 Period (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q4 has spatial projection SP2 Phenomenal Place CRMgeo version 1.2
E4 Period (is a S15 Observable Entity) O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 1.2.3

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period P9 consists of E4 Period CIDOC CRM version 6.2

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E1 CRM Entity geovP12 same as E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E1 CRM Entity geovP13 derived from E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E1 CRM Entity histP31 time-independent entity association E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity P114 is equal in time to E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P115 finishes E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P116 starts E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P117 occurs during E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P118 overlaps in time with E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P119 meets in time with E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity P120 occurs before E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E2 Temporal Entity histP1 involves E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity histP29 is component of E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E2 Temporal Entity histP30 has identity defining component E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
E4 Period Q1 occupied E4 Period (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing Q2 occupied E4 Period (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E73 Information Object geovP2 mentions E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
histC2 Geographical localisation histP12 is location of E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
F29 Recording Event R20 recorded E4 Period (is a E2 Temporal Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volume Q12 approximates E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
histC10 Appellation for language histP9 is appellation for language of (has appellation for language) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM Generic Extension for Historical Data Management and Interoperability, ongoing
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) E4 Period (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S6 Data Evaluation O11 described (was described by) E4 Period (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement O24 measured (was measured by) E4 Period (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S22 Segment of Matter O23 is defined by (defines) E4 Period (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMsci version 1.2.3
geovC1 [Geovistory] Digital geovP11 refers to E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
D2 Digitization Process L60 documents E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
D29 Annotation Object L43 annotates E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
geovC7 Data entity geovP8 corresponds to E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) Geovistory ongoing
C1 Conference P2 is organized by E4 Period (is a E1 CRM Entity) OntoME sandbox Test namespace ongoing

Profiles using this class

Label Start date End date Last updated
Silknow working profile 2019-09-23
Silknow generic 2019-09-23

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