Observation – S4_Observation

Scope Notes

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This class comprises the activity of gaining scientific knowledge about particular states of physical reality gained by empirical evidence, experiments and by measurements. We define observation in the sense of natural sciences, as a kind of human activity: at some Place and within some Time-Span, certain Physical Things and their behavior and interactions are observed, either directly by human sensory impression, or enhanced with tools and measurement devices. The output of the internal processes of measurement devices that do not require additional human interaction are in general regarded as part of the observation and not as additional inference. Manual recordings may serve as additional evidence. Measurements and witnessing of events are special cases of observations. Observations result in a belief about certain propositions. In this model, the degree of confidence in the observed properties is regarded to be “true” per default, but could be described differently by adding a property P3 has note to an instance of S4 Observation, or by reification of the property O16 observed value. Primary data from measurement devices are regarded in this model to be results of observation and can be interpreted as propositions believed to be true within the (known) tolerances and degree of reliability of the device. Observations represent the transition between reality and propositions in the form of instances of a formal ontology, and can be subject to data evaluation from this point on. en

Examples

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Labels

Label Language Last updated
Observation en 2018-06-22

Namespace

Namespace URI Last updated
http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/CRMsci/1/2/3/ 2018-05-18

Parent classes

Class identifier Explanation Root namespace View association
Attribute Assignment – E13 http://www.cidoc-crm.org/cidoc-crm/base/

Ancestor classes

Class identifier Depth Root namespace
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 7 CIDOC CRM
E2 Temporal Entity 5 CIDOC CRM
E4 Period 4 CIDOC CRM
E5 Event 3 CIDOC CRM
E7 Activity 2 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 5 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 6 CIDOC CRM
Thing Thing 7
Thing Thing 8
SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume 5 CRMgeo: a Spatiotemporal Model
Feature Feature 6 GeoSPARQL
[geosparql_entity] [geosparql entity] 7 GeoSPARQL
S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity 6 CRMsci. An Extension of CIDOC-CRM to support scientific observation

Childs and descendant classes

Class identifier Depth Root namespace
S3_Measurement_by_Sampling Measurement by Sampling 2 CRMsci. An Extension of CIDOC-CRM to support scientific observation
S19_Encounter_Event Encounter Event 1 CRMsci. An Extension of CIDOC-CRM to support scientific observation
S21_Measurement Measurement 1 CRMsci. An Extension of CIDOC-CRM to support scientific observation
A1 Excavation Process Unit 1 CRMarchaeo
A9 Archaeological Excavation 1 CRMarchaeo

Equivalent classes

Class identifier Root namespace

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4_Observation Observation O16 E1 CRM Entity Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)
S4_Observation Observation O8 S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)
S4_Observation Observation O9 S9_Property_Type Property Type Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
S4_Observation Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P1 is identified by E41 Appellation CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P2 has type E55 Type CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P48 has preferred identifier E42 Identifier CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) P137 exemplifies E55 Type CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P4 has time-span E52 Time-Span CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P114 is equal in time to E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P115 finishes E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P116 starts E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P117 occurs during E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P118 overlaps in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P119 meets in time with E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) P120 occurs before E2 Temporal Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) histP1 involves E77 Persistent Item Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing
S4_Observation Observation (is a E4 Period ) P7 took place at E53 Place CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E4 Period ) P8 took place on or within E18 Physical Thing CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E4 Period ) P9 consists of E4 Period CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E4 Period ) Q1 SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo, version 1.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E5 Event ) P11 had participant E39 Actor CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E5 Event ) P12 occurred in the presence of E77 Persistent Item CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E5 Event ) O13 E5 Event Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)
S4_Observation Observation (is a E5 Event ) O14 S16_State State Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P14 carried out by E39 Actor CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P15 was influenced by E1 CRM Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P16 used specific object E70 Thing CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P17 was motivated by E1 CRM Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P19 was intended use of E71 Man-Made Thing CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P20 had specific purpose E5 Event CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P21 had general purpose E55 Type CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P32 used general technique E55 Type CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P33 used specific technique E29 Design or Procedure CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P125 used object of type E55 Type CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E7 Activity ) P134 continued E7 Activity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment ) P140 assigned attribute to E1 CRM Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E13 Attribute Assignment ) P141 assigned E1 CRM Entity CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P10 falls within E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P160 has temporal projection E52 Time-Span CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) P161 has spatial projection E53 Place CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a Thing Thing ) topObjectProperty Thing Thing
S4_Observation Observation (is a SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume ) Q3 SP13_Phenomenal_Time-Span Phenomenal Time-Span CRMgeo, version 1.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume ) Q4 SP2_Phenomenal_Place Phenomenal Place CRMgeo, version 1.2
S4_Observation Observation (is a S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity ) O12 E54 Dimension Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci)

Ingoing properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace

Ingoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E2 Temporal Entity P114 is equal in time to S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P115 finishes S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P116 starts S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P117 occurs during S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P118 overlaps in time with S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P119 meets in time with S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E2 Temporal Entity P120 occurs before S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E4 Period P9 consists of S4_Observation (is a E4 Period ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E4 Period Q1 S4_Observation (is a SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume ) CRMgeo, version 1.2)
E5 Event O13 S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))
E7 Activity P134 continued S4_Observation (is a E7 Activity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E7 Activity P20 had specific purpose S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E16 Measurement P39 measured S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E18 Physical Thing Q2 S4_Observation (is a SP1_Phenomenal_Spacetime_Volume Phenomenal Spacetime Volume ) CRMgeo, version 1.2)
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E31 Document P70 documents S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E32 Authority Document P71 lists S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E36 Visual Item P138 represents S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) CIDOC-CRM Version 6.2)
TyIn104 Présence objet_(être_l')_|_Présence S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) symogih.org ontology v.1.2 ongoing)
histC1 Persistent item condition or characteristic histP2 wasInitiatedBy S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing)
histC1 Persistent item condition or characteristic histP3 wasTerminatedBy S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing)
histC2 Time-related geographical localisation histP12 isLocationOf S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing)
Thing Thing topObjectProperty S4_Observation (is a Thing Thing ) )
F29 Recording Event R20 recorded S4_Observation (is a E2 Temporal Entity ) FRBRoo, v. 2.4)
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) FRBRoo, v. 2.4)
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) FRBRoo, v. 2.4)
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) FRBRoo, v. 2.4)
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) FRBRoo, v. 2.4)
SP7_Declarative_Spacetime_Volume Declarative Spacetime Volume Q12 S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) CRMgeo, version 1.2)
SP11_Temporal_Reference_System Temporal Reference System Q19 S4_Observation (is a E5 Event ) CRMgeo, version 1.2)
histC10 Appellation for language histP9 isAppellationOf S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing)
S4_Observation Observation O16 S4_Observation (is a E1 CRM Entity ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))
S4_Observation Observation O8 S4_Observation (is a S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))
S6_Data_Evaluation Data Evaluation O11 S4_Observation (is a S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))
S21_Measurement Measurement O24 S4_Observation (is a S15_Observable_Entity Observable Entity ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))
S22_Segment_of_Matter Segment of Matter O23 S4_Observation (is a E92 Spacetime Volume ) Scientific Observation Model (CRMsci))

Profiles using this class

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