Expression – F2

F2 Expression

Scope note:

This class comprises the intellectual or artistic realisations of works in the form of identifiable immaterial objects, such as texts, poems, jokes, musical or choreographic notations, movement pattern, sound pattern, images, multimedia objects, or any combination of such forms that have objectively recognisable structures. The substance of F2 Expression is signs.

Expressions cannot exist without a physical carrier, but do not depend on a specific physical carrier and can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. Carriers may include human memory.

Inasmuch as the form of F2 Expression is an inherent characteristic of the F2 Expression, any change in form (e.g., from alpha-numeric notation to spoken word, a poem created in capitals and rendered in lower case) is a new F2 Expression. Similarly, changes in the intellectual conventions or instruments that are employed to express a work (e.g., translation from one language to another) result in the creation of a new F2 Expression. Thus, if a text is revised or modified, the resulting F2 Expression is considered to be a new F2 Expression. Minor changes, such as corrections of spelling and punctuation, etc., are normally considered variations within the same F2 Expression. On a practical level, the degree to which distinctions are made between variant expressions of a work will depend to some extent on the nature of the F1 Work itself, and on the anticipated needs of users.

The genre of the work may provide an indication of which features are essential to the expression. In some cases, aspects of physical form, such as typeface and page layout, are not integral to the intellectual or artistic realisation of the work as such, and therefore are not distinctive criteria for the respective expressions. For another work, features such as layout may be essential. For instance, the author or a graphic designer may wrap a poem around an image.

An expression of a work may include expressions of other works within it. For instance, an anthology of poems is regarded as a work in its own right that makes use of expressions of the individual poems that have been selected and ordered as part of an intellectual process. This does not make the contents of the aggregated expressions part of this work, but only parts of the resulting expression.

If an instance of F2 Expression is of a specific form, such as text, image, etc., it may be simultaneously instantiated in the specific classes representing these forms in CIDOC CRM. Thereby one can make use of the more specific properties of these classes, such as language (which is applicable to instances of E33 Linguistic Object only).

Examples:

  • The Italian text of Dante’s ‘Divina Commedia’ as found in the authoritative critical edition ‘La Commedia secondo l’antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi’, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4) (F22 and E33)
  • The Italian text of Dante’s ‘Inferno’ as found in the same edition (F22 and E33)
  • ‘Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita
    mi ritrovai per una selva oscura
    ché la diritta via era smarrita’ [the Italian text of the first stanza of Dante’s ‘Inferno’ and ‘Divina Commedia’] (F23 and E33)
  • The signs which make up Christian Morgenstern’s ‘Fisches Nachtgesang’ [a poem consisting simply of ‘—’ and ‘ ̆’ signs, arranged in a determined combination] (F22)

In First Order Logic:

  • F2(x) ⊃ E73(x)

Scope Notes

Show Scope note Language Namespace View details Comments
This class comprises the intellectual or artistic realisations of works in the form of identifiable immaterial objects, such as texts, poems, jokes, musical or choreographic notations, movement pattern, sound pattern, images, multimedia objects, or any combination of such forms that have objectively recognisable structures. The substance of F2 Expression is signs. Expressions cannot exist without a physical carrier, but do not depend on a specific physical carrier and can exist on one or more carriers simultaneously. Carriers may include human memory. Inasmuch as the form of F2 Expression is an inherent characteristic of the F2 Expression, any change in form (e.g., from alpha-numeric notation to spoken word, a poem created in capitals and rendered in lower case) is a new F2 Expression. Similarly, changes in the intellectual conventions or instruments that are employed to express a work (e.g., translation from one language to another) result in the creation of a new F2 Expression. Thus, if a text is revised or modified, the resulting F2 Expression is considered to be a new F2 Expression. Minor changes, such as corrections of spelling and punctuation, etc., are normally considered variations within the same F2 Expression. On a practical level, the degree to which distinctions are made between variant expressions of a work will depend to some extent on the nature of the F1 Work itself, and on the anticipated needs of users. The genre of the work may provide an indication of which features are essential to the expression. In some cases, aspects of physical form, such as typeface and page layout, are not integral to the intellectual or artistic realisation of the work as such, and therefore are not distinctive criteria for the respective expressions. For another work, features such as layout may be essential. For instance, the author or a graphic designer may wrap a poem around an image. An expression of a work may include expressions of other works within it. For instance, an anthology of poems is regarded as a work in its own right that makes use of expressions of the individual poems that have been selected and ordered as part of an intellectual process. This does not make the contents of the aggregated expressions part of this work, but only parts of the resulting expression. If an instance of F2 Expression is of a specific form, such as text, image, etc., it may be simultaneously instantiated in the specific classes representing these forms in CIDOC CRM. Thereby one can make use of the more specific properties of these classes, such as language (which is applicable to instances of E33 Linguistic Object only). en 0

Examples

Show Example Language Namespace View details Comments
The Italian text of Dante’s ‘Divina Commedia’ as found in the authoritative critical edition ‘La Commedia secondo l’antica vulgata a cura di Giorgio Petrocchi’, Milano: Mondadori, 1966-67 (= Le Opere di Dante Alighieri, Edizione Nazionale a cura della Società Dantesca Italiana, VII, 1-4) (F22 and E33) The Italian text of Dante’s ‘Inferno’ as found in the same edition (F22 and E33) ‘Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vitami ritrovai per una selva oscuraché la diritta via era smarrita’ [the Italian text of the first stanza of Dante’s ‘Inferno’ and ‘Divina Commedia’] (F23 and E33) The signs which make up Christian Morgenstern’s ‘Fisches Nachtgesang’ [a poem consisting simply of ‘—’ and ‘ ̆’ signs, arranged in a determined combination] (F22) en WIP 0

Additional notes

Show Notes Language Namespace View details Comments

Identifier : F2

Labels

Label Language Last updated View details Comments
Expression * en 2018-06-22 0

* : Standard label for this language

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
FRBRoo version 2.4 2020-09-01

Parent classes

Class Class namespace Relation defined in Justification View details Comments
E73 Information Object CIDOC CRM version 6.2 FRBRoo version 2.4 0

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Class namespace
E1 CRM Entity 6 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E1 CRM Entity 7 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E1 CRM Entity 8 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E28 Conceptual Object 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E70 Thing 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E70 Thing 5 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E71 Man-Made Thing 4 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E72 Legal Object 3 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E77 Persistent Item 5 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E77 Persistent Item 6 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E90 Symbolic Object 2 CIDOC CRM version 6.2
S15 Observable Entity 6 CRMsci version 1.2.3
S15 Observable Entity 7 CRMsci version 1.2.3

Childs and descendant classes

Class Depth Class namespace
F22 Self-Contained Expression 1 FRBRoo version 2.4
F23 Expression Fragment 1 FRBRoo version 2.4
F24 Publication Expression 2 FRBRoo version 2.4
F25 Performance Plan 2 FRBRoo version 2.4
F26 Recording 2 FRBRoo version 2.4
F34 KOS 1 FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement 1 FRBRoo version 2.4
F43 Identifier Rule 1 FRBRoo version 2.4

Related classes

Relation Class Justification Relation defined in View details Comments

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
F2 Expression R15 has fragment (is fragment of) F23 Expression Fragment FRBRoo version 2.4
F2 Expression R4 carriers provided by (comprises carriers of) F3 Manifestation Product Type FRBRoo version 2.4
F2 Expression R41 has representative manifestation product type (is representative manifestation product type for) F3 Manifestation Product Type FRBRoo version 2.4
F2 Expression R5 has component (is component of) F22 Self-Contained Expression FRBRoo version 2.4

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) P1 is identified by (identifies) E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) P2 has type (is type of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) P48 has preferred identifier (is preferred identifier of) E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) P137 exemplifies (is exemplified by) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) AP17 is found by (found) E1 CRM Entity CRMarchaeo version 1.4.1
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) L47 has comment E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) L4 has preferred label E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) L53 is not uniquely identified by E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
F2 Expression (is a E28 Conceptual Object) P149 is identified by (identifies) E75 Conceptual Object Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E70 Thing) P43 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E70 Thing) P101 had as general use (was use of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E70 Thing) P130 shows features of (features are also found on) E70 Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E71 Man-Made Thing) P102 has title (is title of) E35 Title CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E71 Man-Made Thing) P103 was intended for (was intention of) E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E72 Legal Object) P104 is subject to (applies to) E30 Right CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E72 Legal Object) P105 right held by (has right on) E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E73 Information Object) P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) E90 Symbolic Object CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E89 Propositional Object) P67 refers to (is referred to by) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E89 Propositional Object) P129 is about (is subject of) E1 CRM Entity CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E89 Propositional Object) P148 has component (is component of) E89 Propositional Object CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) P106 is composed of (forms part of) E90 Symbolic Object CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F2 Expression (is a S15 Observable Entity) O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 1.2.3

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
F4 Manifestation Singleton R42 is representative manifestation singleton for (has representative manifestation singleton) F2 Expression FRBRoo version 2.4
F28 Expression Creation R17 created (was created by) F2 Expression FRBRoo version 2.4
F41 Representative Manifestation Assignment R48 assigned to (was assigned by) F2 Expression FRBRoo version 2.4
F42 Representative Expression Assignment R51 assigned (was assigned by) F2 Expression FRBRoo version 2.4

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E1 CRM Entity AP17 is found by (found) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMarchaeo version 1.4.1
E5 Event P12 occurred in the presence of (was present at) F2 Expression (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by (influenced) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P16 used specific object (was used for) F2 Expression (is a E70 Thing) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by (motivated) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P19 was intended use of (was made for) F2 Expression (is a E71 Man-Made Thing) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to (was attributed by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned (was assigned by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E15 Identifier Assignment P142 used constituent (was used in) F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured (was measured by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified (was classified by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P128 carries (is carried by) F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts (is depicted by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents (is documented in) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists (is listed in) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents (has representation) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E63 Beginning of Existence P92 brought into existence (was brought into existence by) F2 Expression (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E64 End of Existence P93 took out of existence (was taken out of existence by) F2 Expression (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E65 Creation P94 has created (was created by) F2 Expression (is a E28 Conceptual Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E70 Thing P130 shows features of (features are also found on) F2 Expression (is a E70 Thing) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E73 Information Object P165 incorporates (is incorporated in) F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E81 Transformation P123 resulted in (resulted from) F2 Expression (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E81 Transformation P124 transformed (was transformed by) F2 Expression (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on (supported type creation) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about (is subject of) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P148 has component (is component of) F2 Expression (is a E89 Propositional Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to (is referred to by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E90 Symbolic Object P106 is composed of (forms part of) F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F13 Identifier R8 consists of (forms part of) F2 Expression (is a E90 Symbolic Object) FRBRoo version 2.4
F31 Performance R66 included performed version of (had a performed version through) F2 Expression (is a E89 Propositional Object) FRBRoo version 2.4
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema (is thema of) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to (was assigned by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject (was typical subject of) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named (was named by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) F2 Expression (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S6 Data Evaluation O11 described (was described by) F2 Expression (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement O24 measured (was measured by) F2 Expression (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
D2 Digitization Process L60 documents F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
D29 Annotation Object L43 annotates (is annotated by) F2 Expression (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2

Profiles using this class

Label Start date End date Last updated
Geovistory Basics 2019-12-13
Geovistory Generic Historical Information Profile 2019-11-20
READ-IT 2020-02-21

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