Physical Thing – E18

E18 Physical Thing

Scope note:

This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural. Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter. An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute the set. We model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E18 Physical Thing without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it, due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states.

Examples:

  • the Cullinan Diamond (E19)
  • the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26)
  • the Mona Lisa (E22)

In First Order Logic:

  • E18(x) ⊃ E72(x)
  • E18(x) ⊃ E92(x)
  • E18(x) ⊃ SP1(x)
  • E18(x) ⊃ S10(x)

Scope Notes

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This class comprises all persistent physical items with a relatively stable form, man-made or natural. Depending on the existence of natural boundaries of such things, the CRM distinguishes the instances of E19 Physical Object from instances of E26 Physical Feature, such as holes, rivers, pieces of land etc. Most instances of E19 Physical Object can be moved (if not too heavy), whereas features are integral to the surrounding matter. An instance of E18 Physical Thing occupies not only a particular geometric space, but in the course of its existence it also forms a trajectory through spacetime, which occupies a real, that is phenomenal, volume in spacetime. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the matter of the physical thing and all its inner spaces, such as the interior of a box. Physical things consisting of aggregations of physically unconnected objects, such as a set of chessmen, occupy a number of individually contiguous spacetime volumes equal to the number of unconnected objects that constitute the set. We model E18 Physical Thing to be a subclass of E72 Legal Object and of E92 Spacetime volume. The latter is intended as a phenomenal spacetime volume as defined in CRMgeo (Doerr and Hiebel 2013). By virtue of this multiple inheritance we can discuss the physical extent of an E18 Physical Thing without representing each instance of it together with an instance of its associated spacetime volume. This model combines two quite different kinds of substance: an instance of E18 Physical Thing is matter while a spacetime volume is an aggregation of points in spacetime. However, the real spatiotemporal extent of an instance of E18 Physical Thing is regarded to be unique to it, due to all its details and fuzziness; its identity and existence depends uniquely on the identity of the instance of E18 Physical Thing. Therefore this multiple inheritance is unambiguous and effective and furthermore corresponds to the intuitions of natural language. The CIDOC CRM is generally not concerned with amounts of matter in fluid or gaseous states. en

Examples

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the Cullinan Diamond (E19) the cave “Ideon Andron” in Crete (E26) the Mona Lisa (E22) en WIP

Additional notes

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Labels

Label Language Last updated View details and comments
Materielles de 2018-06-22
Υλικό Πράγμα el 2018-06-22
Physical Thing en 2018-06-22
Chose matérielle fr 2018-06-22
Coisa Material pt 2018-06-22
Физическая Вещь ru 2018-06-22
实体物 zh 2018-06-22

Namespace

Namespace Last updated
CIDOC CRM version 6.2 2019-03-28

Parent classes

Class Justification Root namespace View association
E72 Legal Object CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM
SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo: a Spatiotemporal Model
S10 Material Substantial CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation

Ancestor classes

Class Depth Root namespace
E1 CRM Entity 2 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 3 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 4 CIDOC CRM
E1 CRM Entity 5 CIDOC CRM
E70 Thing 2 CIDOC CRM
E77 Persistent Item 3 CIDOC CRM
E92 Spacetime Volume 2 CIDOC CRM
Thing Thing 3 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Thing Thing 4 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Thing Thing 5 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Thing Thing 6 The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary
Feature Feature 2 GeoSPARQL
SpatialObject SpatialObject 3 GeoSPARQL
S15 Observable Entity 4 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation

Childs and descendant classes

Class identifier Depth Root namespace
E19 Physical Object 1 CIDOC CRM
E20 Biological Object 2 CIDOC CRM
E21 Person 3 CIDOC CRM
E22 Man-Made Object 2 CIDOC CRM
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing 1 CIDOC CRM
E25 Man-Made Feature 2 CIDOC CRM
E26 Physical Feature 1 CIDOC CRM
E27 Site 2 CIDOC CRM
E78 Collection 2 CIDOC CRM
E84 Information Carrier 3 CIDOC CRM
F4 Manifestation Singleton 2 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F5 Item 5 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F7 Object 1 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F10 Person 4 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F53 Material Copy 3 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F53 Material Copy 5 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
F54 Utilized Information Carrier 4 FRBRoo: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
Addr Address 4 symogih.org ontology
Anim Animal 3 symogih.org ontology
Buil Building 4 symogih.org ontology
BuPa Building Part 4 symogih.org ontology
GeRe Geographic Region 4 symogih.org ontology
GrBu Group of Buildings 4 symogih.org ontology
HuBe Human Being 3 symogih.org ontology
HuBe Human Being 4 symogih.org ontology
ImCo Immovable Construction 3 symogih.org ontology
InMaOb Individual Object 1 symogih.org ontology
Infra Infrastructure 4 symogih.org ontology
InSu Infrastructure Surface 4 symogih.org ontology
InPl Inhabited Place 4 symogih.org ontology
NaPl Named Place 3 symogih.org ontology
NaGF Natural Geographic Feature 4 symogih.org ontology
Terr Territory 4 symogih.org ontology
histC8 Geographical Place 2 Data for history
S20 Physical Feature 1 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
S22 Segment of Matter 2 CRMsci: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support scientific observation
A2 Stratigraphic Volume Unit 3 CRMarchaeo: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support the archaeological excavation process
A3 Stratigraphic Interface 3 CRMarchaeo: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support the archaeological excavation process
A8 Stratigraphic Unit 2 CRMarchaeo: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support the archaeological excavation process
Person Person 4 APIS - Austrian Bibliographic Lexicon Namespace
Place Place 3 APIS - Austrian Bibliographic Lexicon Namespace
histC11 Built work 2 Data for history
D8 Digital Device 3 CRMdig: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support provenance metadata
D13 Digital Information Carrier 4 CRMdig: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support provenance metadata
D35 Area 2 CRMdig: An Extension of CIDOC CRM to support provenance metadata
Professor Professor 4

Equivalent classes

Class identifier Root namespace

Outgoing properties (this class is domain)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E18 Physical Thing P128 carries E90 Symbolic Object CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P156 occupies E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P44 has condition E3 Condition State CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P45 consists of E57 Material CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P46 is composed of E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P49 has former or current keeper E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P50 has current keeper E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P51 has former or current owner E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P52 has current owner E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P53 has former or current location E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P58 has section definition E46 Section Definition CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P59 has section E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing Q2 occupied SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume CRMgeo version 1.2

Outgoing properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) P1 is identified by E41 Appellation CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) P2 has type E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) P3 has note E62 String CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) P48 has preferred identifier E42 Identifier CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) P137 exemplifies E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) geovP2 is mentioned in geovC5 Expression section Geovistory ongoing
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) L47 has comment E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) L4 has preferred label E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) L53 is not uniquely identified by E62 String CRMdig version 3.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E70 Thing) P43 has dimension E54 Dimension CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E70 Thing) P101 had as general use E55 Type CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E70 Thing) P130 shows features of E70 Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E72 Legal Object) P104 is subject to E30 Right CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E72 Legal Object) P105 right held by E39 Actor CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P10 falls within E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P132 overlaps with E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P133 is separated from E92 Spacetime Volume CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P160 has temporal projection E52 Time-Span CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) P161 has spatial projection E53 Place CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a Thing Thing) topObjectProperty Thing Thing The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary (OWL 2)
E18 Physical Thing (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q3 has temporal projection SP13 Phenomenal Time-Span CRMgeo version 1.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) Q4 has spatial projection SP2 Phenomenal Place CRMgeo version 1.2
E18 Physical Thing (is a S10 Material Substantial) O15 occupied (was occupied by) E53 Place CRMsci version 1.2.3
E18 Physical Thing (is a S15 Observable Entity) O12 has dimension (is dimension of) E54 Dimension CRMsci version 1.2.3

Incoming properties (this class is range)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E4 Period P8 took place on or within E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E6 Destruction P13 destroyed E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E8 Acquisition P24 transferred title of E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E10 Transfer of Custody P30 transferred custody of E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E14 Condition Assessment P34 concerned E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing P46 is composed of E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E53 Place P157 is at rest relative to E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E79 Part Addition P111 added E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E80 Part Removal P113 removed E18 Physical Thing CIDOC CRM version 6.2
F29 Recording Event R65 recorded aspects of E18 Physical Thing FRBRoo version 2.4
SP3 Reference Space Q6 is at rest in relation to E18 Physical Thing CRMgeo version 1.2
S17 Physical Genesis O17 generated (was generated by) E18 Physical Thing CRMsci version 1.2.3
S18 Alteration O18 altered (was altered by) E18 Physical Thing CRMsci version 1.2.3
S19 Encounter Event O19 O19 has found object (was object found by) E18 Physical Thing CRMsci version 1.2.3
A7 Embedding AP18 is embedding of E18 Physical Thing CRMarchaeo version 1.4.1
A8 Stratigraphic Unit AP15 is or contains remains of E18 Physical Thing CRMarchaeo version 1.4.1
D2 Digitization Process L1 digitized E18 Physical Thing CRMdig version 3.2

Incoming properties (inherited from ancestors)

Domain Property identifier Range Namespace
E2 Temporal Entity histP1 involves E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing
E4 Period Q1 occupied E18 Physical Thing (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E5 Event P12 occurred in the presence of E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P15 was influenced by E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P16 used specific object E18 Physical Thing (is a E70 Thing) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E7 Activity P17 was motivated by E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P140 assigned attribute to E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E13 Attribute Assignment P141 assigned E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E16 Measurement P39 measured E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E17 Type Assignment P41 classified E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E18 Physical Thing Q2 occupied E18 Physical Thing (is a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
E24 Physical Man-Made Thing P62 depicts E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E31 Document P70 documents E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E32 Authority Document P71 lists E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E36 Visual Item P138 represents E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E63 Beginning of Existence P92 brought into existence E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E64 End of Existence P93 took out of existence E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E70 Thing P130 shows features of E18 Physical Thing (is a E70 Thing) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E81 Transformation P123 resulted in E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E81 Transformation P124 transformed E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E83 Type Creation P136 was based on E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P129 is about E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E89 Propositional Object P67 refers to E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P10 falls within E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P132 overlaps with E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E92 Spacetime Volume P133 is separated from E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
E93 Presence P166 was a presence of E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CIDOC CRM version 6.2
histC1 Persistent item condition or characteristic histP4 pertainsTo E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing
histC2 Geographical localisation histP12 is location of E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing
Thing Thing topObjectProperty E18 Physical Thing (is a Thing Thing) The OWL 2 Schema vocabulary (OWL 2)
F35 Nomen Use Statement R38 refers to thema E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F40 Identifier Assignment R45 assigned to E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F51 Pursuit R59 had typical subject E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
F52 Name Use Activity R63 named E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) FRBRoo version 2.4
SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volume Q12 approximates E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMgeo version 1.2
histC10 Appellation for language histP9 isAppellationOf E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) Data for History ontology, v.0.1 ongoing
S1 Matter Removal O1 diminished (was diminished by) E18 Physical Thing (is a S10 Material Substantial) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S2 Sample Taking O3 sampled from (was sample by) E18 Physical Thing (is a S10 Material Substantial) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O16 observed value (value was observed by) E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S4 Observation O8 observed (was observed by) E18 Physical Thing (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S6 Data Evaluation O11 described (was described by) E18 Physical Thing (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S21 Measurement O24 measured (was measured by) E18 Physical Thing (is a S15 Observable Entity) CRMsci version 1.2.3
S22 Segment of Matter O23 is defined by (defines) E18 Physical Thing (is a E92 Spacetime Volume) CRMsci version 1.2.3
A4 Stratigraphic Genesis AP9 took matter from E18 Physical Thing (is a S10 Material Substantial) CRMarchaeo version 1.4.1
socE Bond socP6 to E18 Physical Thing (is a E77 Persistent Item) CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
socE Activity Plan socP100 planned for E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMsoc version 0.1 ongoing
D2 Digitization Process L60 documents E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2
D29 Annotation Object L43 annotates E18 Physical Thing (is a E1 CRM Entity) CRMdig version 3.2

Profiles using this class

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